Vascular and arterio-venous malformations (AVM)

Space-occupying vascular malformations covers a large, diverse group of different malformations and tumours. They should be treated if patients develop symptoms from them. The reasons for treatment are summarised in the table below. Absolute indications include those in which treatment is urgently required. Relative indications include those in which the desired benefits and potential risks should be weighed against each other.

Table 1:
Absolute and relative indications for treatment of malformations

Absolute indicationsRelative indications
  • Bleeding
  • Heart failure caused by large arterio-venous shunt volume
  • Ischaemia
  • Chronic venous ischaemia
  • Disruption of vital functions by the malformation
  • Compression or displacement of vital structures
  • Pain
  • Limiting pain
  • Functional restrictions
  • Cosmetically severe deformity
  • High risk of complications
  • Lymphatic leakage
  • Abnormal bone growth due to malformation

The following treatment options are available:

  • Sclerotherapy
  • Embolisation
  • Surgical resection
  • Laser coagulation
  • and manual compression

> Continue to treatment methods


Minimally Invasive Tumour Therapy (MITT)
Charité Campus Virchow-Klinikum (CVK)
Department of Radiology
Augustenburger Platz 1
13353 Berlin